Der russisch-amerikanische Biochemiker, Sachbuchautor und Science-Fiction-Schriftsteller Isaac Asimov (–) sagte, dass er nur zwei Menschen getroffen habe, die er für klüger hielt als sich selbst. Carl Sagan sei einer dieser Menschen gewesen (der andere Marvin Minsky).. Die Landeeinheit der Mars-Pathfinder-Mission wurde zu Ehren von Carl Sagan in Carl Sagan Memorial Station. “Someone reading a book is a sign of order in the world,” wrote the poet Mary Ruefle. Four centuries earlier, while ushering in a new world order, Galileo contemplated how books give us superhuman powers — a sentiment his twentieth-century counterpart, Carl Sagan (November 9, –December. I was recently on NPR’s Science Friday to discuss my favorite science books of the year and a listener called in, asking for a recommendation for a good book on science and religion — an excellent question, given the long history of this polarization, which occupied great minds from Galileo to. This essay delves deeply into the origins of the Vietnam War, critiques U.S. justifications for intervention, examines the brutal conduct of the war, and discusses the . This is my last post for the Bad Astronomy Blog on Discover Magazine. As of today – Monday, November 12, – the blog has a new home at Slate magazine.. It has .
Carl was named in honor of Rachel's biological mother , Chaiya Clara, in Sagan's words, "the mother she never knew. Carl and his sister agreed that their father was not especially religious, but that their mother "definitely believed in God, and was active in the temple; According to biographer Keay Davidson, Sagan's "inner war" was a result of his close relationship with both of his parents, who were in many ways "opposites.
Davidson notes that she therefore "worshipped her only son, Carl. He would fulfill her unfulfilled dreams. My parents were not scientists. They knew almost nothing about science.
But in introducing me simultaneously to skepticism and to wonder, they taught me the two uneasily cohabiting modes of thought that are central to the scientific method. The exhibits became a turning point in his life.
He later recalled the moving map of the America of Tomorrow exhibit: He also witnessed the future media technology that would replace radio: Plainly, the world held wonders of a kind I had never guessed. How could a tone become a picture and light become a noise? Sagan, however, was generally unaware of the details of the ongoing war.
He wrote, "Sure, we had relatives who were caught up in the Holocaust. Hitler was not a popular fellow in our household But on the other hand, I was fairly insulated from the horrors of the war. Sagan recalled taking his first trips to the public library alone, at the age of five, when his mother got him a library card. He wanted to learn what stars were, since none of his friends or their parents could give him a clear answer: I went to the librarian and asked for a book about stars; And the answer was stunning.
It was that the Sun was a star but really close. The stars were suns, but so far away they were just little points of light The scale of the universe suddenly opened up to me.
It was a kind of religious experience. There was a magnificence to it, a grandeur, a scale which has never left me. Never ever left me. While there, they went to the Hayden Planetarium and walked around the museum's exhibits of space objects, such as meteorites , and displays of dinosaurs and animals in natural settings. Sagan writes about those visits: I was transfixed by the dioramas—lifelike representations of animals and their habitats all over the world.
Penguins on the dimly lit Antarctic ice; His interest in space, however, was his primary focus, especially after reading science fiction stories by writers such as H. Wells and Edgar Rice Burroughs , which stirred his imagination about life on other planets such as Mars.
According to biographer Ray Spangenburg, these early years as Sagan tried to understand the mysteries of the planets became a "driving force in his life, a continual spark to his intellect, and a quest that would never be forgotten. Boody Junior High School.
He had his bar mitzvah in Bensonhurst when he turned He graduated in Sagan was made president of the school's chemistry club, and at home he set up his own laboratory. He taught himself about molecules by making cardboard cutouts to help him visualize how molecules were formed: Its Chancellor, Robert Hutchins, structured the school as an "ideal meritocracy," with no age requirement. Muller and wrote a thesis on the origins of life with physical chemist Harold Urey.
Sagan joined the Ryerson Astronomical Society,  received a B. He went on to earn a M. The title of Sagan's dissertation reflects his shared interests with Kuiper, who throughout the s had been president of the International Astronomical Union 's commission on "Physical Studies of Planets and Satellites". The leak was not publicly revealed until , when it was published in the journal "Nature". A follow-up letter to the journal by project leader Leonard Reiffel confirmed Sagan's security leak.
Sagan instead asked to be made an assistant professor , and eventually Whipple and Menzel were able to convince Harvard to offer Sagan the assistant professor position he requested.
In , Sagan was denied tenure at Harvard. He later indicated the decision was very much unexpected. Following the denial of tenure from Harvard, Sagan accepted Gold's offer and remained a faculty member at Cornell for nearly 30 years until his death in Unlike Harvard, the smaller and more laid-back astronomy department at Cornell welcomed Sagan's growing celebrity status.
In , he became the David Duncan Professor of Astronomy and Space Sciences, a position he held for the remainder of his life. From the s onward, he worked as an advisor to NASA , where one of his duties included briefing the Apollo astronauts before their flights to the Moon.
Sagan contributed to many of the robotic spacecraft missions that explored the Solar System , arranging experiments on many of the expeditions.
Sagan assembled the first physical message that was sent into space: He continued to refine his designs; the most elaborate message he helped to develop and assemble was the Voyager Golden Record that was sent out with the Voyager space probes in Sagan often challenged the decisions to fund the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station at the expense of further robotic missions. Sagan belongs in the latter group.
His own view was that Venus was dry and very hot as opposed to the balmy paradise others had imagined.
As a visiting scientist to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory , he contributed to the first Mariner missions to Venus, working on the design and management of the project. Mariner 2 confirmed his conclusions on the surface conditions of Venus in Sagan was among[ clarification needed ] the first to hypothesize that Saturn 's moon Titan might possess oceans of liquid compounds on its surface and that Jupiter 's moon Europa might possess subsurface oceans of water. This would make Europa potentially habitable.
The mystery of Titan's reddish haze was also solved with Sagan's help. The reddish haze was revealed to be due to complex organic molecules constantly raining down onto Titan's surface. He also perceived global warming as a growing, man-made danger and likened it to the natural development of Venus into a hot, life-hostile planet through a kind of runaway greenhouse effect. He studied the observed color variations on Mars' surface and concluded that they were not seasonal or vegetational changes as most believed[ clarification needed ] but shifts in surface dust caused by windstorms.
Sagan is also known for his research on the possibilities of extraterrestrial life , including experimental demonstration of the production of amino acids from basic chemicals by radiation.
A Personal Voyage , which became the most widely watched series in the history of American public television. The show has been seen by at least million people across 60 different countries. It was targeted to a general audience of viewers who Sagan felt had lost interest in science, partly due to a stifled educational system.
The show won an Emmy  along with a Peabody Award , and transformed Sagan from an obscure astronomer into a pop-culture icon. Sagan's number Sagan with a model of the Viking lander that would land on Mars. He urged the scientific community to listen with radio telescopes for signals from potential intelligent extraterrestrial life-forms.
Sagan was so persuasive that by he was able to get a petition advocating SETI published in the journal Science , signed by 70 scientists, including seven Nobel Prize winners. This signaled a tremendous increase in the respectability of a then-controversial field.
Sagan also helped Frank Drake write the Arecibo message , a radio message beamed into space from the Arecibo radio telescope on November 16, , aimed at informing potential extraterrestrials about Earth. Sagan was chief technology officer of the professional planetary research journal Icarus for twelve years. The Planetary Society members at the organization's founding. Carl Sagan is seated on the right.
At the height of the Cold War , Sagan became involved in nuclear disarmament efforts by promoting hypotheses on the effects of nuclear war , when Paul Crutzen 's "Twilight at Noon" concept suggested that a substantial nuclear exchange could trigger a nuclear twilight and upset the delicate balance of life on Earth by cooling the surface. In he was one of five authors—the "S"—in the follow-up "TTAPS" model as the research paper came to be known , which contained the first use of the term " nuclear winter ", which his colleague Richard P.
Nuclear Winter and the End of the Arms Race, which explains the nuclear winter hypothesis and advocates nuclear disarmament. Sagan received a great deal of skepticism and disdain for the use of media to disseminate a very uncertain hypothesis.
In personal correspondence with Edward Teller c. I can compliment you on being, indeed, an excellent propagandist remembering that a propagandist is the better the less he appears to be one". Reflections on the Romance of Science. Sagan also wrote the best-selling science fiction novel Contact in , based on a film treatment he wrote with his wife, Ann Druyan, in , but he did not live to see the book's motion picture adaptation , which starred Jodie Foster and won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation.
Sagan encouraged NASA to generate this image. The aggregate of all our joys and sufferings, thousands of confident religions, ideologies and economic doctrines, every hunter and forager, every hero and coward, every creator and destroyer of civilizations, every king and peasant, every young couple in love, every hopeful child, every mother and father, every inventor and explorer, every teacher of morals, every corrupt politician, every superstar, every supreme leader, every saint and sinner in the history of our species, lived there on a mote of dust, suspended in a sunbeam.
Think of the rivers of blood spilled by all those generals and emperors so that in glory and triumph they could become the momentary masters of a fraction of a dot.
Sagan was also known for his popularization of science, his efforts to increase scientific understanding among the general public, and his positions in favor of scientific skepticism and against pseudoscience , such as his debunking of the Betty and Barney Hill abduction.
To mark the tenth anniversary of Sagan's death, David Morrison , a former student of Sagan's, recalled "Sagan's immense contributions to planetary research, the public understanding of science, and the skeptical movement" in Skeptical Inquirer. In the televised debate, Sagan argued that the effects of the smoke would be similar to the effects of a nuclear winter , with Singer arguing to the contrary. After the debate, the fires burnt for many months before extinguishing efforts were complete.
The results of the smoke did not produce continental-sized cooling. Sagan later conceded in The Demon-Haunted World that the prediction did not turn out to be correct: This tendency found its most effective advocate in a follower of Pythagoras named Plato" and He Plato believed that ideas were far more real than the natural world. He advised the astronomers not to waste their time observing the stars and planets.