Addiction can trap anyone. It can lead to harming ones body, causing problems in family structure, and contribute to the delinquency in society. The sooner people seek help for drug addiction problems, the more chances they have of gaining control of their life once again. However, abstinence is the safest way to live a longer and healthier life. Drug Addiction. Drug Addiction for Dummies Your Name Here School Name COM Expository Essay Allison Howry February 3, Thesis Addiction is defined as an overuse of any substance that changes the natural chemical balance of the brain. Recreational drug use is the use of a drug (legal, controlled, or illegal) with the primary intention of altering the state of consciousness through alteration of the central nervous system in order to create positive emotions and feelings. The hallucinogen LSD is a psychoactive drug commonly used as a recreational drug. When concluding an essay on drug addiction, the writer needs to restate the main points and the thesis statement and indicate the objective of the essay and a call .
Effects of alcohol on the body Early signs The risk of alcohol dependence begins at low levels of drinking and increases directly with both the volume of alcohol consumed and a pattern of drinking larger amounts on an occasion , to the point of intoxication, which is sometimes called "binge drinking". Young adults are particularly at risk of engaging in binge drinking.
Additionally, in pregnant women, alcohol can cause fetal alcohol syndrome. The physical dependency caused by alcohol can lead to an affected individual having a very strong urge to drink alcohol. These characteristics play a role in decreasing an alcoholic's ability to stop drinking.
A depressed mood is a common symptom of heavy alcohol drinkers. Short-term effects of alcohol Drinking enough to cause a blood alcohol concentration BAC of 0. A BAC of 0. A BAC from 0. With all alcoholic beverages, drinking while driving , operating an aircraft or heavy machinery increases the risk of an accident; many countries have penalties for drunk driving.
Long-term effects See also: Long-term effects of alcohol consumption Having more than one drink a day for women or two drinks for men increases the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure , atrial fibrillation , and stroke. Other physical effects include an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease , malabsorption , alcoholic liver disease , and several cancers.
Damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from sustained alcohol consumption. Additionally, women have a higher mortality rate from alcoholism than men. Additionally, heavy drinking over time has been found to have a negative effect on reproductive functioning in women.
This results in reproductive dysfunction such as anovulation , decreased ovarian mass, problems or irregularity of the menstrual cycle , and early menopause.
Equal dosages of alcohol consumed by men and women generally result in women having higher blood alcohol concentrations BACs , since women generally have a higher percentage of body fat and therefore a lower volume of distribution for alcohol than men, and because the stomachs of men tend to metabolize alcohol more quickly. Severe cognitive problems are common; approximately 10 percent of all dementia cases are related to alcohol consumption, making it the second leading cause of dementia.
The social skills that are impaired by alcohol abuse include impairments in perceiving facial emotions, prosody perception problems and theory of mind deficits; the ability to understand humour is also impaired in alcohol abusers. The most prevalent psychiatric symptoms are anxiety and depression disorders. Psychiatric symptoms usually initially worsen during alcohol withdrawal, but typically improve or disappear with continued abstinence.
Women who have alcohol-use disorders often have a co-occurring psychiatric diagnosis such as major depression , anxiety , panic disorder , bulimia , post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , or borderline personality disorder. Social effects See also: Drug-related crime Serious social problems arise from alcoholism; these dilemmas are caused by the pathological changes in the brain and the intoxicating effects of alcohol.
Drinking at inappropriate times and behavior caused by reduced judgment can lead to legal consequences, such as criminal charges for drunk driving  or public disorder, or civil penalties for tortious behavior, and may lead to a criminal sentence.
An alcoholic's behavior and mental impairment while drunk can profoundly affect those surrounding him and lead to isolation from family and friends. This isolation can lead to marital conflict and divorce , or contribute to domestic violence.
Alcoholism can also lead to child neglect , with subsequent lasting damage to the emotional development of the alcoholic's children. For example, they can become afraid of their parents, because of their unstable mood behaviors. In addition, they can develop considerable amount of shame over their inadequacy to liberate their parents from alcoholism.
As a result of this failure, they develop wretched self-images, which can lead to depression. The poster states "Ah! When will we [the nation] abolish alcohol?
With repeated heavy consumption of alcohol, these receptors are desensitized and reduced in number, resulting in tolerance and physical dependence. When alcohol consumption is stopped too abruptly, the person's nervous system suffers from uncontrolled synapse firing. This can result in symptoms that include anxiety , life-threatening seizures , delirium tremens , hallucinations, shakes and possible heart failure. The acute withdrawal phase can be defined as lasting between one and three weeks.
In the period of 3—6 weeks following cessation increased anxiety, depression, as well as sleep disturbance, is common;  fatigue and tension can persist for up to 5 weeks as part of the post-acute withdrawal syndrome ; about a quarter of alcoholics experience anxiety and depression for up to 2 years.
These post-acute withdrawal symptoms have also been demonstrated in animal models of alcohol dependence and withdrawal. Individuals who have had multiple withdrawal episodes are more likely to develop seizures and experience more severe anxiety during withdrawal from alcohol than alcohol-dependent individuals without a history of past alcohol withdrawal episodes. The kindling effect leads to persistent functional changes in brain neural circuits as well as to gene expression.
For example, the CIWA-Ar objectifies alcohol withdrawal symptoms in order to guide therapy decisions which allows for an efficient interview while at the same time retaining clinical usefulness, validity, and reliability, ensuring proper care for withdrawal patients, who can be in danger of death. It is not entirely clear whether this association is causal, and some researchers have been known to disagree with this view.
Cortical degeneration due to the neurotoxic effects increases impulsive behaviour, which may contribute to the development, persistence and severity of alcohol use disorders. There is evidence that with abstinence, there is a reversal of at least some of the alcohol induced central nervous system damage.
Beer alone is the world's most widely consumed  alcoholic beverage ; it is the third-most popular drink overall, after water and tea. Males had higher rates than females for all measures of drinking in the past month: For example, there are differences between African, East Asian and Indo-racial groups in how they metabolize alcohol.
These genetic factors partially explain the differing rates of alcohol dependence among racial groups. African Americans and Native Americans with this allele have a reduced risk of developing alcoholism.
Addiction medicine Definition A man drinking from a bottle of liquor while sitting on a boardwalk, ca. Picture by Austrian photographer Emil Mayer. Misuse, problem use, abuse, and heavy use of alcohol refer to improper use of alcohol, which may cause physical, social, or moral harm to the drinker. According to the NIAAA, men may be at risk for alcohol-related problems if their alcohol consumption exceeds 14 standard drinks per week or 4 drinks per day, and women may be at risk if they have more than 7 standard drinks per week or 3 drinks per day.
It defines a standard drink as one ounce bottle of beer, one 5-ounce glass of wine, or 1. An inference drawn from this study is that evidence-based policy strategies and clinical preventive services may effectively reduce binge drinking without requiring addiction treatment in most cases.
The WHO calls alcoholism "a term of long-standing use and variable meaning", and use of the term was disfavored by a WHO expert committee. The Big Book from Alcoholics Anonymous states that once a person is an alcoholic, they are always an alcoholic, but does not define what is meant by the term alcoholic in this context.
In , Bill W. We have never called alcoholism a disease because, technically speaking, it is not a disease entity. For example, there is no such thing as heart disease. Instead there are many separate heart ailments, or combinations of them. It is something like that with alcoholism. We did not wish to get in wrong with the medical profession by pronouncing alcoholism a disease entity. Talbot observes that alcoholism in the classical disease model follows a progressive course: This will lead to harmful consequences in their life, physically, mentally, emotionally and socially.
He looks at this in four phases. The first two are considered "normal" drinking and the last two are viewed as "typical" alcoholic drinking. Learning the mood swing.
A person is introduced to alcohol in some cultures this can happen at a relatively young age , and the person enjoys the happy feeling it produces. At this stage, there is no emotional cost. Seeking the mood swing. A person will drink to regain that feeling of euphoria experienced in phase 1; the drinking will increase as more intoxication is required to achieve the same effect.
Again at this stage, there are no significant consequences. At the third stage there are physical and social consequences, i. A person will continue to drink excessively, disregarding the problems. The fourth stage can be detrimental, as Johnson cites it as a risk for premature death. As a person now drinks to feel normal, they block out the feelings of overwhelming guilt, remorse, anxiety, and shame they experience when sober.
They describe the process in three stages: Adaptive stage — The person will not experience any negative symptoms, and they believe they have the capacity for drinking alcohol without problems.
Physiological changes are happening with the increase in tolerance, but this will not be noticeable to the drinker or others. Dependent stage — At this stage, symptoms build up gradually. Hangover symptoms from excessive drinking may be confused with withdrawal symptoms. Many addicts will maintain their drinking to avoid withdrawal sickness, drinking small amounts frequently.
They will try to hide their drinking problem from others and will avoid gross intoxication. Deterioration stage — Various organs are damaged due to long-term drinking. Medical treatment in a rehabilitation center will be required; otherwise, the pathological changes will cause death.
The terms they recommend are similar but not identical.