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Praxis 2 general science essays

Praxis 2 General Science Essays

Praxis 2 general science essays

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The mass of one mole of atoms of an element. Also called gram-atomic weight. For a solution with a liquid as solvent, the temperature at which it freezes to a solid is slightly lower than the freezing point of the pure solvent.

Praxis 2 general science essays

This phenomenon is known as freezing point depression and is related in a simple manner to the concentration of the solute. Germ cells, also called gametes, combine to produce somatic cells.

Somatic cells therefore have twice as many chromosomes. The haploid number n is the number of chromosomes in a gamete. A somatic cell has twice that many chromosomes 2n. Typically, r-selected species exploit less-crowded ecological niches, and produce many offspring, each of which has a relatively low probability of surviving to adulthood.

In contrast, K-selected species are strong competitors in crowded niches, and invest more heavily in fewer offspring fixed action pattern an instinctive behavioral sequence that is indivisible and runs to completion.

Praxis II general science

Fixed action patterns are invariant and are produced by a neural network known as the innate releasing mechanism in response to an external sensory stimulus known as a sign stimulus or releaser a signal from one individual to another Commensalism a class of relationship between two organisms where one organism benefits but the other is unaffected cattle egrets foraging in fields among cattle or other livestock. As cattle, horses, and other livestock graze on the field, they cause movements that stir up various insects.

As the insects are stirred up, the cattle egrets following the livestock catch and feed upon them. The egrets benefit from this relationship because the livestock have helped them find their meals, while the livestock are typically unaffected by it. Is mostly heated by transfer of energy from the surface, so on average temperature decreases with altitude.

Praxis 2 general science essay

This promotes vertical mixing stratosphere the layer of the atmosphere that lies between the troposphere and the mesosphere and in which temperature increases as altitude increases; contains the ozone layer. Temperature decreases with height. Due to the cold temperature, water vapor is frozen, forming ice clouds or Noctilucent clouds.

A type of lightning referred to as either sprites or ELVES, form many miles above thunderclouds in the troposphere. Within this layer, ultraviolet radiation causes ionization. The International Space Station has a stable orbit within the middle of the thermosphere, between and kilometres and mi. Auroras also occur in the thermosphere. Here the particles are so far apart that they can travel hundreds of km without colliding with one another. Since the particles rarely collide, the atmosphere no longer behaves like a fluid.

These free-moving particles follow ballistic trajectories and may migrate into and out of the magnetosphere or the solar wind. The exosphere is mainly composed of hydrogen and helium. It is located in the lower portion of the stratosphere Ozone concentrations are greatest between about 20 and 40 km, where they range from about 2 to 8 parts per million. If all of the ozone were compressed to the pressure of the air at sea level, it would be only a few millimeters thick Precambian Eon period of time from the formation of the Earth 4.

Eons are divided into eras, which are in turn divided into periods, epochs and ages Phanerozoic Eon the time since the formation of life-forms to the present day; divided into three eras: Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Centzoic Paleozoic Era early life million years ago ; single cell organisms, shells, mollusks, brachiopods, rise of first vertebrates, rise of land plants, amphibians, insects, seed plants, and trees, and reptiles Mesozoic Era middle life million years ago ; rise of mammals and dinosaurs; the rise of birds; extinction of dinosaurs, rise of flowering plants Cenozoic Era is the most recent of the three classic geological eras and covers the period from Rise of mammals, homo sapiens.

To reflect these primary lines of descent, he treated each as a domain, divided into several different kingdoms. Ribosomes then read the information in this RNA and use it to create proteins. This process is known as translation nucleus membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. After being produced in the nucleolus, ribosomes are exported to the cytoplasm where they translate mRNA vacuole A vacuole is a membrane bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.

It is followed by cytokinesis, which divides the nuclei, cytoplasm, organelles and cell membrane into two cells. Mitosis and cytokinesis together define the mitotic M phase of the cell cycle — the division of the mother cell into two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to their parent cell.

During the process of mitosis the pairs of chromosomes condense and attach to fibers that pull the sister chromatids to opposite sides of the cell. The cell then divides in cytokinesis, to produce two identical daughter cells. In short, it is a bond formed by the attraction between two oppositely charged ions. It can also be derived from kinetic theory. The state of an amount of gas is determined by its pressure, volume, and temperature. The modern form of the equation is: This can be either a simple redox process, such as the oxidation of carbon to yield carbon dioxide CO2 or the reduction of carbon by hydrogen to yield methane CH4 , or a complex process such as the oxidation of sugar C6H12O6 in the human body through a series of complex electron transfer processes.

The part to be plated is the cathode of the circuit. The anode is made of the metal to be plated on the part. Both components are immersed in a solution electrolyte containing one or more dissolved metal salts that permit the flow of electricity.

A power supply supplies a direct current to the anode, oxidizing its metal atoms, dissolving in the solution. Tetrads align at the metaphase plate. Similar to mitosis, the microtubules and the kinetochore fibers interact to cause the movement. Unlike in mitosis, the homologous chromosomes move to opposite poles yet the sister chromatids remain together.

Once movement is complete, each pole has a haploid number of chromosomes In most cases, cytokinesis occurs at the same time as telophase I.

Praxis 2 general science essays

At the end of telophase I and cytokinesis, two daughter cells are produced, each with one half the number of chromosomes of the original parent cell. Depending on the kind of cell, various processes occur in preparation for meiosis II. There is however a constant: The genetic material does not replicate again. The new equatorial metaphase plate is rotated by 90 degrees when compared to meiosis I, perpendicular to the previous plate meiosis II Meiosis II is the second part of the meiotic process.

Much of the process is similar to mitosis. The four main steps of Meiosis II are: The sister chromatids by convention are now called sister chromosomes as they move toward opposing poles. Nuclear envelopes reform and cleavage or cell wall formation eventually produces a total of four daughter cells, each with a haploid set of chromosomes. Meiosis is now complete and ends up with four new daughter cells.

In highly vacuolated plant cells, the nucleus has to migrate into the center of the cell before mitosis can begin. This is achieved through the formation of a phragmosome, a transverse sheet of cytoplasm that bisects the cell along the future plane of cell division. This is called open mitosis, and it occurs in most multicellular organisms.

Each chromosome forms two kinetochores at the centromere, one attached at each chromatid. Next, the nonkinetochore microtubules elongate, pulling the centrosomes and the set of chromosomes to which they are attached apart to opposite ends of the cell.

These two stages are sometimes called early and late anaphase mitosis telophase is a reversal of prophase events. Corresponding sister chromosomes attach at opposite ends of the cell. A new nuclear envelope forms around each set of separated sister chromosomes. Both sets of chromosomes, now surrounded by new nuclei, unfold back into chromatin. Mitosis is complete, but cell division is not yet complete.

In such a mixture, a solute is dissolved in another substance, known as a solvent. Substance present in larger amount is solvent. Solvents can be gases, liquids, or solids. The solution has the same physical state as the solvent. This point of maximum concentration, the saturation point, depends on the temperature of the liquid, pressure, contaminates, as well as the chemical nature of the substances involved.

The solubility of liquids in liquids is generally less temperature-sensitive than that of solids or gases. At the elevated pressure in the bottle, more carbon dioxide can dissolve in water than at atmospheric pressure. At atmospheric pressure, the carbon dioxide gas escapes very slowly from the supersaturated liquid.

This process may be accelerated by the presence of nucleation sites within the solution, such as small bubbles, caused by shaking the bottle, or another solute, such as sugar powder or a widget. A Diet Coke and Mentos eruption is a rather extreme example.

Praxis 2 general science essays

As ions dissolve in a solvent they spread out and become surrounded by solvent molecules involves different types of intermolecular interactions: Ion-ion interactions occur only in ionic solvents distinct from dissolution and solubility. Dissolution is a kinetic process, and is quantified by its rate. Solubility quantifies the dynamic equilibrium state achieved when the rate of dissolution equals the rate of precipitation.

That ionic suffix is dropped and replaced with a new suffix and sometimes prefix. For example, HCl has chloride as its anion, so the -ide suffix makes it take the form hydrochloric acid.