On the uses of a liberal education: 1. as lite entertainment for bored college students. September 1, Harper's Magazine. Mark Edmundson. A college student getting a liberal arts education ponders filling out a questionnaire that includes an opportunity for him to evaluate his instructor. Sigmund Freud (IPA: [ˈziːkmʊnt ˈfʁɔʏt]), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6 – September 23 ), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who co-founded the psychoanalytic school of helpmyessay.pw is best known for his theories of the unconscious mind, especially his theory of the mechanism of repression; his redefinition of sexual desire as mobile and directed towards a. Jacques Lacan (—) It would be fair to say that there are few twentieth century thinkers who have had such a far-reaching influence on subsequent intellectual life in the humanities as Jacques Lacan. Description of Freud’s Psychodynamic Theory - The various components of our conscious and subconscious the id, ego, and superego lives in all of us and affects what we . The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
His father, Jakob Freud — , a wool merchant, had two sons, Emanuel — and Philipp — , by his first marriage. Jakob's family were Hasidic Jews , and although Jakob himself had moved away from the tradition, he came to be known for his Torah study. Freud's half brothers emigrated to Manchester , England, parting him from the "inseparable" playmate of his early childhood, Emanuel's son, John. He proved to be an outstanding pupil and graduated from the Matura in with honors. His research work on the biology of nervous tissue proved seminal for the subsequent discovery of the neuron in the s.
The lengthy downtimes enabled him to complete a commission to translate four essays from John Stuart Mill 's collected works. His research work in cerebral anatomy led to the publication of an influential paper on the palliative effects of cocaine in and his work on aphasia would form the basis of his first book On the Aphasias: Over a three-year period, Freud worked in various departments of the hospital.
His time spent in Theodor Meynert 's psychiatric clinic and as a locum in a local asylum led to an increased interest in clinical work. His substantial body of published research led to his appointment as a university lecturer or docent in neuropathology in , a non-salaried post but one which entitled him to give lectures at the University of Vienna. The same year he married Martha Bernays , the granddaughter of Isaac Bernays , a chief rabbi in Hamburg. They had six children: From until they left Vienna in , Freud and his family lived in an apartment at Berggasse 19 , near Innere Stadt , a historical district of Vienna.
The close relationship she formed with Freud led to rumours, started by Carl Jung , of an affair. The discovery of a Swiss hotel log of 13 August , signed by Freud whilst travelling with his sister-in-law, has been presented as evidence of the affair. He believed that smoking enhanced his capacity to work and that he could exercise self-control in moderating it.
Despite health warnings from colleague Wilhelm Fliess , he remained a smoker, eventually suffering a buccal cancer. Brentano discussed the possible existence of the unconscious mind in his Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint Although Brentano denied its existence, his discussion of the unconscious probably helped introduce Freud to the concept. One historian concluded, based on Freud's correspondence with his adolescent friend Eduard Silberstein, that Freud read Nietzsche's The Birth of Tragedy and the first two of the Untimely Meditations when he was seventeen.
Freud had a lithograph of this painting placed over the couch in his consulting rooms. He was later to recall the experience of this stay as catalytic in turning him toward the practice of medical psychopathology and away from a less financially promising career in neurology research. Once he had set up in private practice in , Freud began using hypnosis in his clinical work.
He adopted the approach of his friend and collaborator, Josef Breuer , in a use of hypnosis which was different from the French methods he had studied in that it did not use suggestion.
The treatment of one particular patient of Breuer's proved to be transformative for Freud's clinical practice. Described as Anna O. In the course of talking in this way these symptoms became reduced in severity as she retrieved memories of traumatic incidents associated with their onset. The uneven results of Freud's early clinical work eventually led him to abandon hypnosis, having reached the conclusion that more consistent and effective symptom relief could be achieved by encouraging patients to talk freely, without censorship or inhibition, about whatever ideas or memories occurred to them.
In conjunction with this procedure, which he called " free association ", Freud found that patients' dreams could be fruitfully analyzed to reveal the complex structuring of unconscious material and to demonstrate the psychic action of repression which, he had concluded, underlay symptom formation.
By he was using the term " psychoanalysis " to refer to his new clinical method and the theories on which it was based. His explorations of his feelings of hostility to his father and rivalrous jealousy over his mother's affections led him to fundamentally revise his theory of the origin of the neuroses.
On the basis of his early clinical work, Freud had postulated that unconscious memories of sexual molestation in early childhood were a necessary precondition for the psychoneuroses hysteria and obsessional neurosis , a formulation now known as Freud's seduction theory. In he published The Interpretation of Dreams in which, following a critical review of existing theory, Freud gives detailed interpretations of his own and his patients' dreams in terms of wish-fulfillments made subject to the repression and censorship of the "dream work".
He then sets out the theoretical model of mental structure the unconscious, pre-conscious and conscious on which this account is based. An abridged version, On Dreams, was published in In works which would win him a more general readership, Freud applied his theories outside the clinical setting in The Psychopathology of Everyday Life and Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious Both men saw themselves as isolated from the prevailing clinical and theoretical mainstream because of their ambitions to develop radical new theories of sexuality.
Fliess developed highly eccentric theories of human biorhythms and a nasogenital connection which are today considered pseudoscientific.
Id, ego and super-ego
He shared Freud's views on the importance of certain aspects of sexuality — masturbation, coitus interruptus , and the use of condoms — in the etiology of what were then called the "actual neuroses," primarily neurasthenia and certain physically manifested anxiety symptoms. His first attempt at a systematic theory of the mind, his Project for a Scientific Psychology was developed as a metapsychology with Fliess as interlocutor.
According to Freud her history of symptoms included severe leg pains with consequent restricted mobility, and stomach and menstrual pains. These pains were, according to Fliess's theories, caused by habitual masturbation which, as the tissue of the nose and genitalia were linked, was curable by removal of part of the middle turbinate. At first, though aware of Fliess's culpability — Freud fled from the remedial surgery in horror — he could only bring himself to delicately intimate in his correspondence to Fliess the nature of his disastrous role and in subsequent letters maintained a tactful silence on the matter or else returned to the face-saving topic of Eckstein's hysteria.
Freud ultimately, in light of Eckstein's history of adolescent self-cutting and irregular nasal and menstrual bleeding, concluded that Fliess was "completely without blame", as Eckstein's post-operative hemorrhages were hysterical "wish-bleedings" linked to "an old wish to be loved in her illness" and triggered as a means of "rearousing [Freud's] affection".
Eckstein nonetheless continued her analysis with Freud. She was restored to full mobility and went on to practice psychoanalysis herself. Their friendship came to an acrimonious end with Fliess angry at Freud's unwillingness to endorse his general theory of sexual periodicity and accusing him of collusion in the plagiarism of his work.
After Fliess failed to respond to Freud's offer of collaboration over publication of his Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality in , their relationship came to an end. Stanley Hall , Carl Jung ; back row: The title "professor extraordinarius"  was important to Freud for the recognition and prestige it conferred, there being no salary or teaching duties attached to the post he would be granted the enhanced status of "professor ordinarius" in His conversion to psychoanalysis is variously attributed to his successful treatment by Freud for a sexual problem or as a result of his reading The Interpretation of Dreams, to which he subsequently gave a positive review in the Viennese daily newspaper Neues Wiener Tagblatt.
Kahane had attended the same secondary school and both he and Reitler went to university with Freud. They had kept abreast of Freud's developing ideas through their attendance at his Saturday evening lectures. In it, he provided an outline of Freud's psychoanalytic method.
Adler, regarded as the most formidable intellect among the early Freud circle, was a socialist who in had written a health manual for the tailoring trade. He was particularly interested in the potential social impact of psychiatry. The gatherings followed a definite ritual.
First one of the members would present a paper. Then, black coffee and cakes were served; cigar and cigarettes were on the table and were consumed in great quantities.
After a social quarter of an hour, the discussion would begin. The last and decisive word was always spoken by Freud himself. There was the atmosphere of the foundation of a religion in that room. Freud himself was its new prophet who made the heretofore prevailing methods of psychological investigation appear superficial.
In , reflecting its growing institutional status, the Wednesday group was renamed the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society. Both women would go on to make important contributions to the work of the Russian Psychoanalytic Society founded in This meeting, which was retrospectively deemed to be the first International Psychoanalytic Congress,  was convened at the suggestion of Ernest Jones , then a London-based neurologist who had discovered Freud's writings and begun applying psychoanalytic methods in his clinical work.
There were, as Jones records, "forty-two present, half of whom were or became practicing analysts. Important decisions were taken at the Congress with a view to advancing the impact of Freud's work. Freud turned to Brill and Jones to further his ambition to spread the psychoanalytic cause in the English-speaking world.
Both were invited to Vienna following the Salzburg Congress and a division of labour was agreed with Brill given the translation rights for Freud's works, and Jones, who was to take up a post at the University of Toronto later in the year, tasked with establishing a platform for Freudian ideas in North American academic and medical life. Freud's audience included the distinguished neurologist and psychiatrist James Jackson Putnam , Professor of Diseases of the Nervous System at Harvard , who invited Freud to his country retreat where they held extensive discussions over a period of four days.
Putnam's subsequent public endorsement of Freud's work represented a significant breakthrough for the psychoanalytic cause in the United States. Brill founded the New York Psychoanalytic Society the same year. His English translations of Freud's work began to appear from From , Adler's views on topics such as neurosis began to differ markedly from those held by Freud. As Adler's position appeared increasingly incompatible with Freudianism, a series of confrontations between their respective viewpoints took place at the meetings of the Viennese Psychoanalytic Society in January and February In February , Adler, then the president of the society, resigned his position.
At this time, Stekel also resigned his position as vice president of the society. Adler finally left the Freudian group altogether in June to found his own organization with nine other members who had also resigned from the group. In the period after World War I, Adler became increasingly associated with a psychological position he devised called individual psychology. To distinguish his system from psychoanalysis, Jung called it analytical psychology. Max Eitingon joined the Committee in Each member pledged himself not to make any public departure from the fundamental tenets of psychoanalytic theory before he had discussed his views with the others.
After this development, Jung recognised that his position was untenable and resigned as editor of the Jarhbuch and then as president of the IPA in April The final defection from Freud's inner circle occurred following the publication in of Rank's The Trauma of Birth which other members of the committee read as, in effect, abandoning the Oedipus Complex as the central tenet of psychoanalytic theory.
Abraham and Jones became increasingly forceful critics of Rank and though he and Freud were reluctant to end their close and long-standing relationship the break finally came in when Rank resigned from his official posts in the IPA and left Vienna for Paris. His place on the committee was taken by Anna Freud. Early psychoanalytic movement[ edit ].