You can add this points as originality of the article was conducted to assess medication adherence and treatment satisfaction among schizophrenic outpatients. The conclusions of the study can be summarized as follows: First, the majority (78%) of the patients had low to medium adherence rate. This free Health essay on Essay: Schizophrenia is perfect for Health students to use as an example. This free Health essay on Essay: Schizophrenia is perfect for Health students to use as an example. maximise the beneficial effects of treatment for persistent symptoms and enhance adherence to recommend regimens. Also psychosocial. Oct 22, · Non-adherence is a major problem in the treatment of schizophrenia. Its high prevalence, potentially severe consequences and associated costs make . “Adherence is one of the most important issues in illness management,” according to Dawn I. Velligan, Ph.D, director of the Division of Schizophrenia and Related Disorders at the University of. Throughout this essay, the word adherence is going to be generally used, which portrays an amount of patient’s participation in the treatment plan. Factors influencing medication adherence Psychiatric nurses, need to look at the factors and understand why patients do not adhere to their treatment in .
- Managing Medication Adherence in the Community Essay
- Mental Health Patients’ Non-Adherence to Treatment Regimens Essay
- Psychosocial Treatment of Schizophrenia
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- Managing Medication Adherence in the Community Essay
Reasons of Mental Health Patients Abstract This study will answer the question why mental health patients fail to adhere to their treatment regimens.
This research is critical in nursing practice, as it will define the role of the nurses in promoting adherence. The primary assumption of this study is that the main reason for the non-adherence of the patients is the lack of monitoring on the part of the medical professionals.
The factors of non-adherence to treatments, outcomes of non-adherence, improving adherence and empirical studies related to the topic were presented coherently in the literature review. This current study is a qualitative research and will make use of secondary data analysis and interviews in gathering data. The subjects of this research will be doctors, nurses and patients, mainly outpatients, in an urban area. Two sets of interview schedules will be used, one for the medical professionals and another for patients.
Throughout the years, treatments for mental health have significantly improved; however, a significant percentage of patients still choose not to comply with their treatment regimens Corrigan, Non-adherence to treatment regimens can be as simple as forgetting to take the prescribed doses of medication, intentionally not taking them, skipping days and weeks of scheduled therapy, or totally ceasing attendance to therapy Sturt, Treatment non-adherence affects response efficiency.
According to Knapp, King, Pugner and Lapuerta , not adhering to medical treatments cause the amplifying number of patients that experience relapse. In addition, non-adherence also leads to a significant increase in the costs of treatment. It is possible that patients who do not adhere to their medications may need to undergo substantial treatment and support from different types of medical services Knapp, et al, Cases like these have been studied comprehensively; however, there is still no clear understanding as to why there remains to be a significant non-adherence among patients.
According to Hussar , one possible reason is that patients forget to adhere to their prescriptions. There are reasons why scrutinizing non-adherence is empirically difficult. For one, there are various forms of medical treatments that a patient could comply with and correspondingly, there are also various means not to adhere with the medical treatments.
Managing Medication Adherence in the Community Essay
To add to this complex equation, it is also hard to know if the patient has adhered or not in reality Sturt, Recent studies regarding non-adherence also amount to discouraging outcomes. Patients either simply do not follow their prescriptions or they are taking it in an incorrect manner or they have stopped complying with the prescription without asking for the advice from medical professionals, hence, all of these three are not being opened up with the professionals AIDS Program Office, Research Problem Medical professionals are confronted with the crucial issue of non-adherence of mental health patients to their treatment regimens.
Despite the vast number of empirical studies regarding non-adherence to treatment regimens, there are still matters that remain to be explored. Hence, the main problem of this research is why mental health patients fail to adhere to their treatment regimens.
Consequently, this main problem will be further subdivided into several sub-problems, as follows: What are the common reasons why mental health patients do not adhere to their treatment regimens? What are the effects of non-adherence to treatment regimens? How can non-adherence to treatment regimens be solved?
Mental Health Patients’ Non-Adherence to Treatment Regimens Essay
Objectives of the Study This study will center on determining the reasons why mental health patients do not adhere to their prescribed regimens. In order to attain this main goal, this study will also identify the reasons that were already distinguished from various studies conducted in the past. Moreover, this study will focus on determining the possible effects of not adhering to treatments and finding out the most effective way to solve this issue.
Significance of the Study Non-adherence to treatment regimens is a very serious issue in the realm of medicine. Hence, it affects medical professionals in totality, doctors, specialists and nurses, who share a common thrust of working towards patient well-being. Nurses primarily look after the patient while they are undergoing treatment within the hospital; they ensure that their patients take their prescribed treatments properly and effectually. However, once patients are released from confinement, most of them no longer have nurses who will look after them with the same painstaking care and meticulousness.
Psychosocial Treatment of Schizophrenia
Moreover, there are only few who avail of the services of a private nurse. This study will assist nurses in what they may do in order to lessen treatment non-adherence among mental health patients. Through this, they will be able to identify their contribution to avoid or reduce the probability of relapses among those who do not comply and to ensure the continuous treatment and eventual recovery of their patients. Definition of Terms Mental health patients — patients with mental problems i.
Adherence — is the extent of which a person follows the schedule and dosage of intake of the prescribed drugs or treatments given to him Hussar, Non-adherence — forgetting or intentionally not taking prescribed medications and not attending scheduled therapy Sturt, Treatment regimen — a formulated plan of treatment that is expected to yield positive results MedicineNet, Patients may forget to take in their prescriptions or just simply stop without informing their doctors.
Moreover, they might think that their treatment is already adequate or is not making any difference in improving their present condition. However, at the status quo, medical professional wait for their patients to return for further diagnosis, at which point, their conditions have already been aggravated.
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Medical professionals are in the best position to proactively carry out means that address non-compliance to treatment regimens of mental health patients and meet their patients half-way through. Conceptual Framework The Health Belief Model HBM is used as a theoretical framework for the current study, since it is the most conventional and cohesive model for explaining adherence to treatment regimens.
Morgan used this model in his study entitled A Decade Review: This model was developed by Hochbaum, Rosenstock and Kegels — a group of psychologists back in the s — in order to understand the failure of a free tuberculosis health screening program.
HBM was built in the assumption that a person will resort to health-related measures if he or she believes that unfavorable health conditions can be prevented; that he would not experience any negative health conditions if the prescribed treatment is complied with; and, lastly, if the patient thinks that he can easily comply with the prescribed treatment Universiteit Twente, According to HBM, a patient formulate his decision of adherence or non-adherence to the proposed treatment regimen according to his assessment about the chances that the disease will occur, its seriousness, and the benefits that the patient will receive from compliance to the prescribed treatment Morgan, Understanding HBM requires the corresponding comprehension of four main concepts, namely, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits and perceived barriers.
In addition, new concepts like cues to action and self-efficacy are recently added. The former is said to be the variable that sets the patient in motion, while the latter pertains to the confidence of the patient of his capability in performing the recommended action Universiteit Twente, Consequently, perceived severity pertains to judgment of a person on the extent of gravity of the health condition.
The third concept, perceived benefits, refers to the outlook of a person about the effectiveness of the treatment in lessening the amount of risk or susceptibility to such risk.
Figure 1 below illustrates the Health Belief Model Glanz, et al.
Health Belief Model Source: Universiteit Twente Literature Review Factors the Influence Non-Adherence to Treatments Hussar enumerated the following as the reasons of patients non-adherence to their treatment regimens: In addition, according to Sturt , forgetfulness may occur due to the other activities of the patient.
For instance, out-of-town trips, work, sports, among others. In addition, a patient might only avail the treatments during their pay day due to financial constraints. Moreover, they may only take half of the prescribed medicine. Consequently, though patients stop adhering to their treatments because they think they are already well, this reason is said to be rare.
Other reasons are laziness in adhering to the treatment and stress from unexpected life occurrences Sturt, The reasons for non-adherence, according to Sturt , can be grouped into four classifications — the characteristics of the regimen, the cognitive-emotional aspect, the psychosocial aspect, and the beliefs and knowledge of the patient. For the first classification, the characteristics of the regimen, non-adherence can be because of convoluted regimens; moreover, the patient will also not adhere to the regimen if it proves to be tedious and would have to be complied with for a long period of time, or it will be very costly Sturt, On the cognitive-emotional facet, patients may not remember all the instructions and advice that the doctor has relayed to them, even if they have been informed repeatedly.
Patients are inclined to keep in mind what they are told first and what is important according to their judgment. There is also no difference between intelligent patients and patients of average intellectual capability, older and younger patients, and slightly anxious and totally anxious patients, when it comes to remembering what the doctor have told them regarding their regimen.
The patient may be able to remember most of what he was told if he has sufficient amount of medical knowledge Sturt, As for psychosocial factors, non-adherence can be caused by the degree of social support and the personality of the patient. The latter particularly pertains to their dispositional attitudes, emotional state, and their knowledge and attitudes. In connection to the last aspect of psychosocial factors, the last classification of reasons for non-adherence is knowledge or beliefs which consist of lack of necessary knowledge, denial and apparent invulnerability Sturt, Outcomes of Non-Adherence Basically, if there is non-adherence to the treatment regimen, the symptoms and the disease itself may not be treated.
Along with the worsening of the current health condition is the financial burden that it shall imply. The quality of life of the patient will also be aggravated, if he does not adhere to the treatment Hussar, Improving Adherence among Patients One possible and effectual way of improving adherence is to build and cultivate a symbiotic relationship between the patient and the medical professional attending to him.
In order to make such a relationship possible, two-way communication is a definite requisite Hussar, Establishing good communication starts with exchanging information through asking and answering questions.
Managing Medication Adherence in the Community Essay
Through such dialogue, the two parties will get to discuss the gravity of the health condition has which can be followed by the formulation of the apt treatment regimen. This also includes the discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed treatment regimen. The patient could also voices out his concerns regarding the treatment; hence, the doctor will be able to clear misconceptions that may inhibit the effectiveness of the treatment.
These exchanges between doctor and patient must all be built on a high sense of trust and thus of transparency Hussar, Doctors should also extensively explain the reasons behind how the medicines should be taken, why these should be taken, and what should take place during the whole treatment process Hussar, Through these, the patient will be reassured that adherence to their prescribed treatment will garner favorable health outcomes.
Moreover, it may also be advantageous to give written instructions to the patients for better recall.
If the patient has more than one medical professional attending to him, communication and collaboration between them is ideal for increased awareness about the treatments prescribed to the patient and to optimize the impact of the combined treatments Hussar, There is also a possibility of being able to formulate a simpler treatment towards increased adherence.
However, there should also be substantial participation on the part of the patient to increase the probability of treatment success. According to Hussar , patients who participate in their treatment regimen even in the planning stage have a much higher adherence rate. With participation, comes ownership and responsibility over the treatment; hence, the patient will be even be the one monitoring the progress of the treatment because of his high involvement in the process Hussar, The patient will follow the prescribed treatment if he perceives that the doctor really cares about the course of the treatment.
Moreover, it may be helpful if all the medications will be availed from only one pharmacist so that records of the drugs that the patient will avail are easily documented and remembered.
The pharmacist may also monitor if the drugs that the patient purchases are the right ones and if they go well with one another, without adverse effects. Pharmacists will also be able to instruct the patient on how to take the medications. Involvement of support groups with the treatment is likewise critical, as these support groups will help emphasize to the patient the value of adherence to their treatment regimen Hussar, Doctors should also recommend memory aids in order to avoid forgetfulness; these aids can be as common as a wristwatch alarm or containers which have the instructions for drug intake, and which can be provided by the pharmacist Hussar, Patterns and Predictors among Epidemiological Survey Respondents in the United States and Ontario, the researchers focused on two main objectives.
The results of their study suggest that the proportion of dropouts is almost similar in the USA