The major welfare state programs include Social Assistance, the Canada Child Tax Benefit, Old Age Security and the Guaranteed Income Supplement, Employment Insurance, the Canada and Quebec Pension Plan, Workers’ Compensation, public education, medicare, social housing and social services. Welfare state in canada essays. November 18, Welfare state in canada essays No Comments. Concentration camps in the holocaust essays tertiary education importance essay helpMeasure for measure lucio analysis essay mon argent de poche essay literature and culture essay. Published: Wed, 10 Jan Modern welfare state development is generally considered to lead to social security or benefits payments, social housing provision, health provision, social work and educational services. The Post-Welfare State in Canada: Income-Testing and Inclusion Introduction It has become accepted wisdom amongst both advocates and opponents of globalization that nation states are struggling to cope with powerful economic forces which challenge their power and do not respect political boundaries. - Welfare Reform - Welfare Recipients MUST take Personal Responsibility Public Welfare is an important support system of the United States government. Welfare has its benefits.
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Last Edited August 13, The welfare state in Canada is a multi-billion dollar system of government programs that transfer money and services to Canadians to deal with an array of societal needs. Health care for the elderly courtesy Take Stock Photography. The welfare state in Canada is a multi-billion dollar system of government programs — many introduced in the s — that transfer money and services to Canadians to deal with an array of needs including but not limited to poverty, homelessness, unemployment, immigration, aging, illness, workplace injury, disability, and the needs of children, women, gay, lesbian, and transgender people.
Programs are funded and delivered by the federal, provincial and municipal governments. What is the Welfare State? For many years after, postwar British society was frequently characterized often pejoratively as a "welfare state," but by the s the term commonly denoted an industrial capitalist society in which state power was "deliberately used through politics and administration in an effort to modify the play of market forces. Under this definition, Canada became a welfare state after the passage of the social welfare reforms of the s see Social Security.
Richard Titmuss, one of the most influential writers on the welfare state, noted in Essays on the Welfare State that the social welfare system may be larger than the welfare state, a distinction of particular importance in Canada, where the social services component of the welfare state is less well-developed. In addition to occupational welfare, there are a range of social welfare services provided by parapublic, trade union, church, and non-profit institutions.
These are often funded by a combination of state and private sources. Political Ideas Social Democracy To some writers, the expansion of the welfare state is a central political focus of social democracy because of the contribution of welfare state policies and programs to the reduction of inequality, the expansion of freedom, the promotion of fellowship and democracy, and the expression of humanitarianism.
In Canada, such a view of the welfare state appeared in the League for Social Reconstruction's Social Planning for Canada and in the reports of social reformers, such as Leonard Marsh's classic, Report on Social Security for Canada , written for the wartime Advisory Committee on Reconstruction.
Liberalism It is the modern liberal — and not the social democratic — conception of the role of the Canadian state in the provision of social welfare that has been dominant.
In 20th-century liberalism , as practised in Canada and elsewhere, the responsibility for well-being rests with either the individual or the family, or both. Simultaneously, there is a clear acceptance that capitalist economies are not self-regulating but require significant levels of state intervention to achieve stability. In relation to Briggs' definition, there is an emphasis in liberalism on the first two of the three welfare state activities: The necessity to develop an economically interventionist but more cautious and residual social welfare state has been the theme of a number of major reports by British writers J.
In the contemporary period, these ideas continue to find expression in the work of the Institute for Research on Public Policy and its magazine, Policy Options. Conservatism The modern conservative conception of the welfare state is guided by the principles of 19th-century liberalism , i. The reduction of inequality through taxation, often held to be a goal if not a result of the welfare state, is considered antithetical to the pursuit of freedom and to material progress. If it is the pursuit of self-interest which leads to an economically robust society then a reduction through taxation of the incentive to accumulate more income and wealth will inevitably lead to less growth and less economically healthy society.
Consequently, the modern welfare state is criticized from the conservative perspective. In particular, it is often argued that social expenditures have become too heavy a burden for the modern state and that state expenditures on social programs divert resources from private markets, thus hampering economic growth. According to the conservative conception, the welfare state has discouraged people from seeking work and has created a large, centralized, uncontrolled and unproductive bureaucracy.
Proponents of this view argue that the welfare state must be cut down and streamlined, and that many of its welfare activities should be turned over to charity and to private corporations. In reference to Briggs' definition of the welfare state, conservatives support only the minimum income activities of the contemporary welfare state. This view of the welfare state is currently supported in Canada by many members of the Conservative Party.
In the contemporary period, this view is prevalent in the books and briefs produced by business-oriented research and lobby organizations such as the Fraser Institute and the C.
Howe Institute , and the Canadian Council of Chief Executives, a business lobby organization representing Canada's largest companies. Howe Institute, is representative. Marxism The re-examination of contemporary capitalist societies begun in the s has also produced a Marxist interpretation of the welfare state.
In this view, in societies such as Canada which are dominated by private markets, it is the exploitation of labour that supports the ever-increasing growth of capital in the hands of private employers. In this context, a major role of the modern state is the provision of an appropriately trained, educated, housed and disciplined labour force available to employers when and where necessary.
To accomplish this, the welfare state becomes involved in the regulation of women, children and the family through laws affecting marriage, divorce, contraception, separation, adoption, and child support since the family is the institution directly concerned with the preparation of present and future generations of workers and in provisions for employment, education, housing, and public and private health.
These ideas found expression in Canada in the past in the publications of the Communist Party of Canada. They continue to find expression in works by university-based authors and in the pages of magazines such as This Magazine and Canadian Dimension. Canada's Welfare State Social welfare in Canada has passed through roughly four phases of development that correspond to the country's economic, political and domestic development.
Social welfare, considered a local and private concern, consisted of the care of the mentally ill and of disabled and neglected children see Child Welfare , and the jailing of lawbreakers.
After Confederation , the provision of social welfare continued to be irregular and piecemeal, depending in part on the philanthropic concerns of the upper class — in particular of those women who viewed charitable activities as an extension of their maternal roles and as an acceptable undertaking in society. The first extensive debate on child welfare was led by J. It was the beginnings of the child-saving movement in Canada.
A similar approach was taken up by other provinces. Reform of this system was based on the notion that the family was the basis of economic security. The institutionalization of the family and the social reproduction of labour began with laws to enforce alimony, to regulate matrimonial property and marriage, and to limit divorce and contraception. This was expanded with limits on hours of work for women and children.
Compulsory education and public health regulations were developed primarily in response to the spread of disease and fears of social unrest. Provincial governments began to support charitable institutions with regular grants. In Ontario , the first evidence of permanent support was in the form of the Charity Aid Act of which also called for the regulation of charities. This was largely achieved by the use of state mechanisms to maintain stability in the economy and the family, and also through the signing of treaties with Aboriginal people to further free up land for European settlement.
During the same period, charity workers and organizations began to consolidate and to battle ideologically, generally unsuccessfully, for control of social welfare. First World War The appearance of laws compelling children to attend school and giving public authorities power to make decisions for "neglected" children was part of a growing number of state interventions to regulate social welfare.
The first industrial relations law, the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act, was passed in , allowing the state to intervene in relations between labour and capital. The first compulsory contributory social insurance law in Canada, the Workmen's Compensation Act, was passed in Ontario in During the First World War , two important forces speeded the development of an interventionist welfare state: Both led to a Dominion scheme of pensions and rehabilitation and, in Manitoba , to the first mothers' allowances legislation in Several provinces followed with mothers' allowance legislation of their own, but it was restricted to providing minimal support to deserted and widowed women.
By war's end, after the incorporation of many thousands of women workers into the wartime labour force, they were encouraged to step aside to provide employment for male heads of households.
The postwar era also ushered in the first and brief federal scheme to encourage the construction of housing, but it lasted only from to Despite considerable debate during the s about whether to establish permanent unemployment, relief and pension schemes, the only result was the passage of the old-age pension law, and this was in part the result of the efforts of J.
Woodsworth and a small group of Independent Labour members of Parliament. Under the law, the federal government shared the cost of provincially administered and means-tested pensions for destitute persons over the age of It was a modest beginning.
The law explicitly excluded Aboriginal people. Great Depression It was the trauma of the Great Depression that forced a change in social philosophy and state intervention. In , with hundreds of thousands of Canadians unemployed, the newly elected Conservative government under R. Bennett legislated Dominion Unemployment Relief, which provided the provinces with grants to help provide relief.
The government then opened unemployment relief camps run by the Department of National Defence , often in isolated locales, to give work at minimal wages to single unemployed men, and to keep them away from urban areas.
Unemployment victims during the Depression resorted to the soup kitchens like this one in Montreal in , operated by voluntary and church organizations. By the Conservative Party's stern resistance to social reform had been softened in the face of an economic catastrophe, with up to a quarter of the workforce believed to be unemployed.
Continuing pressure from trade unions, and from relief camp workers and from social reformers for jobs, better wages and unemployment insurance , led Bennett to abandon reliance on the so-called natural "restorative" powers of capitalism in favour of social reform in Bennett's New Deal. This was introduced in a series of radio talks in January Later that same year, the Dominion Housing Act became the first permanent law for housing assistance. Although the provinces objected on constitutional grounds to the New Deal's labour and social insurance reforms -- and the courts and the British Privy Council subsequently determined that the federal government did not have the power to pass such legislation -- the need for social reform was affirmed in the Report of the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations, created to examine the constitutional and social questions posed by the Depression.
The Report recommended that the federal government take responsibility for employment and the employable unemployed, and the provinces for social services and for those people deemed to be unemployable, e. The federal Unemployment Insurance Act was passed in , after agreement with the provinces. A constitutional amendment to the British North America Act was necessary to give the federal government authority for unemployment insurance.
The Tax Rental Agreements, arrived at with the provinces after protracted negotiations early in wartime, gave the federal government the right to collect income and corporate taxes for the duration of the war, a right it has retained to the present.
By the beginning of the Second World War , the economic and political lessons of the Depression had been well learned.
Welfare state in canada essays
Canadians increasingly accepted an expanded role of the state in economic and social life during the war, and expected this to continue after the war. To facilitate Canadian involvement in the war, Ottawa created a wide range of measures including the construction of housing, controls on rents, prices, wages and materials, the regulation of industrial relations, veterans pensions, land settlement, rehabilitation and education, day nurseries and the recruitment of women into the paid workforce in large numbers.
A wartime study in Britain by William Beveridge, released in December , provided the promise of postwar employment and economic security. In the same month the federal government commissioned a report that offered similar promises for Canada — the Report on Social Security, prepared by Leonard Marsh and released in March The government largely ignored this and other wartime reports. Instead, Mackenzie King settled on a political compromise. After re-election in , the Mackenzie King government moved to dismantle much of the apparatus of state intervention constructed during the war.
The White Paper on Employment, which appeared the same year, expressed the government's belief in the approach to economic management which followed from the work of the economist J. The economy would be managed to produce full employment by providing assistance to private enterprise rather than by engaging directly in economic activity — or by providing further social welfare measures.
Prime Minister Mackenzie King campaigning in Still, at the Dominion-Provincial Conference that year, the King government presented the Green Book proposals, which included social assistance and hospital insurance measures, in order to gain concessions from the provinces on income and corporation taxes.
The provinces did not agree, and the proposals were not subsequently revived until more than 10 years later. Laurent Still, pressures for social reform continued. Under the postwar government of Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent , public housing, federal hospital grants and assistance programs for disabled and blind persons were initiated. A trade union campaign for changes in pensions led to the creation of universal old-age pensions for those over 70, and means-tested old-age security for those between 65 and 70 in — The new legislation required agreement from the provinces for a constitutional amendment.
For the first time, cash benefits were extended to Aboriginal people. An amendment to the Indian Act in extended the application of provincial social welfare legislation to Aboriginal people. One result was the disastrous program initiated in several of the provinces to take Aboriginal children into the care of the state, and to adopt many out to non-Aboriginal parents. During this period, permanent programs for the funding of hospitalization, higher education and vocational rehabilitation were introduced or extended.