Sigmund Freud: Psychoanalytic Theory of Personality According to Sigmund Freud, the key to a healthy personality is a balance between the Id, the Ego and the Superego. The Id, the Ego and the Superego are three theoretical constructs, in terms of whose activity and interactions, the mental life can be described and complex human behaviours formed. Critically evaluate freud. Critically Evaluate Freud's Theory. Sigmund Freud () he was Jewish and educated in Vienna, where he trained in medicine. Freud was the founder of psychoanalysis. He was the first psychologist to recognise the importance of the conscious and unconscious mind. His theory was psychoanalysis. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Essay Words | 8 Pages. Sigmund Freud created strong theories in science and medicine that are still studied today. Freud was a neurologist who proposed many distinctive theories in psychiatry, all based upon the method of psychoanalysis. Essay Sigmund Freud 's Theory Of Psychology - In the past years psychology has used the method acting of science to come to some clearer and less ambiguous understanding of human being nature. Personality is the bailiwick within this scientific psychology that written report individuals. Oct 19, · Anna Freud, Freud’s psychoanalytic heir, also emphasized the impaired parent-infant bonding as one of the causes of pathogenic behavior, and believed that emotional attachments in early childhood help to ‘fuse and neutralize’ aggressive urges in later life (Freud, ). Thus, according to this theory, one can never eliminate aggression, but try to control it by channeling it into ways involving Reviews:
Top 3 Theories of Aggression Article Shared by This article throws light upon the top three theories of aggression. Instinct Theory of Aggression 2. Frustration Aggression Hypothesis 3.
Instinct Theory of Aggression: The instinct theory of aggression was advanced by Sigmund Freud the great psychoanalyst of yester years.
In this back ground aggression was considered simply as a reaction to the blocking of libidinal impulses. Thus, it was neither an automatic nor an inevitable part of life. But in course of psychoanalysis and particularly after the second world war Freud gradually came to know the presence of two basic urges such as Eros and Thantos or life instinct and death instinct instead of one instinct Life instinct held earlier.
Thus revising his earlier view on instincts he wrote.
Top 3 Theories of Aggression
After long doubts and vacillations we have decided to assume the existence of only two basic urges Eros or the Life instinct and Thantos or the Destructive instinct. Thus Freud with experience and analysis gradually came to adopt the nature of human aggression, and proposed a second major instinct named the Thantos, the force of death or destruction whose energy in directed towards the destruction or termination of life, towards hatred, anger and violence and towards all sorts of aggressive feelings, actions, dealings and behaviours.
He thus held that all human behaviour including aggressive behaviour stems from the complex interaction between the instinct of Eros and Thantos and the constant tension between them. Freud held that the death instinct is unrestrained and results in self destruction.
So he indicated that through other mechanisms like displacement, the energy of Thantos i. The instinct theory of aggression was not much developed by Freud in the beginning. But later on, he and his associates worked on it and attempted to explain it in detail. The instinct theory of aggression originates from the instinct of death or destruction. Physiologically the death instinct represents the force which tend to destroy the organic life and to lead organic matter back to the inorganic state.
Psychologically the death instinct gives rise to hostile and aggressive behaviour, to aggressive sexual activity or to self and race destruction. Thus love and hatred, pleasure and pain, life and death instincts go side by side. The death instinct otherwise known as the instinct of aggression is also expressed in destructive and aggressive intellectual activities such as criticism, satire and taunts.
According to the instinct theory of aggression, aggression is a global instinctive, steam boiler like force which Freud and his associates argue is urgently required and basically inevitable for self preservation as well as reproduction. McDougall has also denoted the phenomenon of aggression in the instinct of combat on the basis of the instinct theory of aggression first postulated by Freud, Miller, Dollard and others. According to Freud when we analyze the desire for love we also find some desire for aggression.
Thus the best loved friend becomes the bitterest enemy when both fall out. In our hence attitude towards every stimulus there is the desire for love as well as aggression. The instinct theory of aggression holds that aggression is inherited and biological in nature and is expressed overtly and covertly i. His positive social proposals were to break up human societies in to small communities through which the aggressive instinct can find an outlet in enmity towards those outside the group in a conveniently and relatively harmless form.
Freud holds that life and death instincts are primary instincts and all other instincts are derived from these. The instinct theory of Freud is said to be the starting point but not the corner stone of psychoanalysis.
Psychologists working in the area of frustration and aggression have in fact found that aggression in not instinctive, but it develops as a reaction to frustration of basic urges experienced during early childhood period.
No matter whether love or hate are instinctual or early acquired, they are always with us. The facts of love and hate are psychological data independent of the theory. Behaviour originated by life instinct may have strong components of death instinct and behaviour mainly motivated by death instinct may have strong components of life instinct.
Same psychologists object to the death instinct advanced by Freud. They say death instinct is a part of life instinct and hence it not justified to introduce it as a separate instinct. Some biologists also go against the aggressive instinct advanced by Freud.
They argue that life instinct motivates an organism to live and to do whatever is possible for the sake of living. It is due to this that we are organisms. If we wish death, how could we be called organisms? Research findings earlier mentioned indicate that the view about innate drive for aggression or destruction is not correct since in most of the instances aggression is found to be due to frustration arising out of early childhood experiences.
Social learning and imitation also induce aggression. Aggression may occur due to some hormonal and biological factors, but it is not instinctive as Freud held. He held that the view of an innate drive for destruction can be attacked both factually and logically. The great majority of soldiers reported that their reason for fighting was to get the job done or the desire not to let their outfits down. Only 2 percent said that they fought out of anger, revenge or fighting spirit.
Another 3percent gave replies that might be interpreted as aggressive such as crushing or cutting the aggressor piece by piece. The men in the front or boarder where expression of aggression would have been maximum and in accordance with their actions expressed very few aggressive feelings. But it was however noticed that soldiers in the training camps where aggression, hostility and combat is part of the training, most frequently expressed hatred and aggressive feelings for the enemy.
Freud and his followers did not believe that aggression can be completely uprooted. They however viewed that the intensity of aggression can be reduced by the promotion of positive emotional attachment among people with the help of substitute out lets such as engagement in adventure works like sports, swimming, athletics, mountaineering, space travel, Karate, Judo etc.
Observations of animals in their natural habitats led some psychologists to view that aggressive drive has an innate, biological or instinctive basis. In the opinion of Konrad Lorenz, aggression which causes physical harm to others starts from a fighting instinct that human beings share with other organisms.
The energy associated with this instinct is spontaneously produced in individuals at a more or less constant rate. The probability of aggression increases as a function of the amount of stored energy and the presence and strength of aggression releasing stimuli. According to him aggression is inevitable and at times spontaneous outbursts of powerful feelings occur like volcanic irruption.
Though observation of animal behaviour suggests that the innate instinct of aggression drives animals to aggressive behaviour, the same should not be generalized in case of human beings, and such generalization if made by anybody is highly questionable. There are in fact major differences between human aggression and animal aggression. While animal aggression can be controlled and regulated by immediate changes in the stimulus, human aggression can be maintained by mediating cognitive structures and to a much smaller degree stimulus bound.
Feshbach Thus the issue of biological basis of aggression is a controversial one and needs further debate. They further view that sex differences in aggressive behaviour most likely have a biological basis. Further it is seen that activity level of a person is connected with his constitution. An active child is more found to be involved in aggressive encounters. When an event or situation disturbs or upsets the child or the adult, it is considered frustrating.
But a situation which is considered frustrating for one person may not be frustrating for another person. Here parental training, social class, economic status and early childhood training for frustration tolerance play their role.
Freud probably for the first time gave the term frustration a scientific basis. Frustration in simple terms may be defined as that state in the organism which exists as a consequence of interference in the goal oriented behaviour and gives rise to a number of maladaptive or substituted reactions.
A person who fails to marry his sweet heart because of parental rejection and social restrictions is said to be suffering from severe frustration. Frustration during childhood may arise from several sources because of his helplessness at birth.
The famous German psycholosist Ottorank held that birth cry indicates the greatest frustration in human life. The pangs of separation from the mother acts as a tremendous source of frustration. Minor interferences however may bring mild and brief reactions of aggression. The view of Freud and his followers that aggression is an instinct and innate drive has been rejected by later psychologists like Miller; Bollard and many others.
They have proposed that it is a frustration instigated drive.
The Frustration-Aggression hypothesis proposed by Miller Bollard and others is a significant contribution is tracing the causes of aggression.
This hypothesis states that aggression is always a consequence of frustration. Miller applied this hypothesis to the Negroes of U. Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis postulates the following: The expression of aggression reduces the desire for it.
The key aspect of the hypothesis is that aggression is the measure and fundamental reaction to frustration though other responses like regression, withdrawal, reaction formation and displacement etc. According to this hypothesis aggression is not inborn but is a learned behaviour. Since frustration is found universally aggression is also found universally, they say, and hence frustration may be considered as a drive.
Marke and Ervin further view that even though the presence of some genetic or biological factors in aggression cannot be ruled out in case of human beings, these mechanism are under the cognitive control of man. A person with a particular brain injury may react aggressively to situations which may not give rise to any aggressive response in case of a normal person without brain injury.
This indicates that a normal person has cognitive control capacity where as a brain injured person lacks this. In normal persons the frequency with which the aggressive behaviour is expressed, the form it takes and the situations in which it is displayed are determined greatly by learning and socio-cultural factors.
The proponents of the Frustration Aggression hypothesis advocate that aggression is always a consequence of frustration of some sort. It is therefore inevitable that aggression follows frustration. This theory briefly holds that frustration produces aggression which acts as a drive or motive to react, combat or make attacks. My grandson Anuraag when wants to view cartoon net work in television his father objects strongly. Anuraag inhibits his aggression towards his father and withdraws from the Television.
But when the maid servant asks him not to see cartoon net work, immediately he shouts at her and sometimes gives her a kick. Thus members of the out group who are considered less powerful become suitable targets of aggression and hence become the scapegoats for the frustrated members of the more powerful groups. Hence, in line with Freudian energy model, Instinct theory , the aggression is stored and compounded with each new frustration ready to be released on a powerless or less powerful stimulus.
According to Freudians the expression of aggression is desirable as it would drain off the accumulation of aggressive urges. Inhibition of aggressive urges on the other hand will lead to psychological complications during the subsequent stages of personality development.
At least the child should be allowed to vent his aggression on his toys and dolls or in painting and drawings. He should be allowed to play and run to release the suppressed energy.