The climate is considered over many moments in time. Climate is dependant on the changes in the weather over a period in time. Weather and Climate don't differ as much as they play a part in how the other is determined. Air temperature plays a major part in how weather and climate counteract/5(5). Weather Essay: Weather is the state of the atmosphere, to the degree that it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy. A moment’s view of the atmosphere is considered weather. Weather refers to day-to-day temperature and precipitation activity, whereas climate is the term for the statistics of atmospheric conditions over longer periods of time. Weather and Climate Neil Frederick S. Calderon, RMT Weather and Climate Describe the physical conditions of the atmosphere in a particular area Weather: short period Climate: long-term pattern of weather Affect human activities and ecosystem distribution Weather and Climate Weather is the day-to-day condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place. Here is your essay on Earth’s Weather and Climate! The term ‘earth sciences’ is used to describe all the sciences concerned with the structure, age, composition and atmosphere of the earth. It includes the basic subject of geology, with its sub- classifications of geochemistry, geomorphology. Climate Change Essay 5 ( words) Climate change, as the name suggests, is a change in the climatic conditions on the Earth. There is a frequent variation in the weather however climate change is known to occur only if these variations last from a few decades to centuries.
- Essay on Weather and Climate: Top 6 Essays | Climatology | Geography
- Climate Change and Weather Essay
- Essay on Earth’s Weather and Climate (4258 Words)
It includes the basic subject of geology, with its sub- classifications of geochemistry, geomorphology, geophysics, mineralogy, seismology and volcanism, oceanography, meteorology, and paleontology. A stand-alone view of various phenomena will not serve any purpose as any independent model is unable to sustain the variability of the complexities involved in the earth and ocean sciences, which are gradually converging.
It has therefore become imperative to understand the interdependence and coupling of geological sciences and oceanography. The combined approach to earth and ocean sciences is also the key to predicting and managing natural disasters or hazards like earthquakes, cyclones, floods, tsunami, etc.
The MoES deals with matters relating to meteorology, seismology, climate and environmental science and related earth sciences including ocean science and technology. It facilitates an integrated view of earth systems viz. The MoES oversees research in earth system sciences, forecast monsoons and other climate parameters, ocean state, earthquakes, tsunamis and earth science phenomena. The ministry also supports industry in science, aviation, water resources, aquaculture, agriculture, etc.
It also develops and coordinates science and technology related to oceans, Polar Regions besides preserving, assessing and exploiting marine living and non-living resources. Apart from the MoES, an Earth Commission was also set up in January which acts as a nodal authority on earth sciences set up on the lines of Atomic Energy and Space Commission, The Earth Commission comprising about 12 members views in a holistic way phenomena that couple earth, atmosphere and oceans.
It formulates policies of MoES, creates suitable executive, networking and legislative mechanisms, approves major projects, budget, etc. It also establishes recruitment procedures, assesses manpower needs and undertakes HRD and capacity building. Several projects are being carried out to get information on earth and atmospheric sciences.
Deep continental studies are being undertaken to study the structure of the Indian lithosphere. A project has been launched with a view to studying geological, geomorphological, structural and geophysical setting of deep sea fans and is expected to throw light on the nature of oceanic crust and various events in evolution of the Himalayas. Efforts are being made to link data collection platforms with INSAT for better understanding of glaciers.
A multi-institutional coordinated programme on arid zone research was launched in to enhance productivity of land, man and animal in arid land regions of the country with application of science and technology.
Many of the programmes are of importance in the context of understanding how natural disasters take place and how to mitigate their effect. Indian Meteorological Department IMD , which was set up on an all- India basis in , is the national agency for providing services in meteorology.
Data collected from over 1, observatories of different types including data collection platforms is processed by it. IMD along with the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology IITM , Pune, conducts fundamental and applied research in meteorological instrumentation, radar meteorology, seismology, agricultural meteorology, hydrometeorology, and satellite meteorology and air pollution. IITM has been conducting cloud seeding experiments for producing rain artificially.
It also funds monsoon research by a centre in the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. For better coordination, Meteorological Centres have been set up in other state capitals.
To render service to agriculturists, weather bulletins are issued daily since from Meteorological Centres relating to their regions. They give district wise forecasts of weather and warnings against adverse weather. Flood meteorological offices have been working at ten different centres to provide meteorological support to flood forecasting organisation of Central Water Commission.
IMD issues warnings against heavy rainfall, strong winds and cyclonic weather for general public and various private and public organisations including aviation, defence services, ships, ports, fishermen, mountaineering expeditions and agriculturists.
Essay on Weather and Climate: Top 6 Essays | Climatology | Geography
Disaster warning system receivers have been installed in disaster-prone coastal areas of north Tamil Nadu and south Andhra Pradesh and more would be installed along coastal areas of West Bengal, Orissa, north Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. Cyclone warnings to ports and ships are issued by Mumbai, Kolkata, Visakhapatnam, Bhubaneswar and Chennai offices.
Weather satellite pictures transmitted by Indian National Satellite are received at main Data Utilisation Centre at Delhi and processed and transmitted to users. A cyclone warning and research centre at Chennai investigates problems exclusively relating to tropical cyclones.
Meteorological data is exchanged with many countries through high-speed telecommunication channels. IMD participates in Indian scientific expeditions to Antarctica and scientific cruises of ocean research vessels. IIA conducts research in solar and stellar physics, radio astronomy, cosmic radiation, etc. IIG records magnetic observations and conducts research in geomagnetism.
Under the Dynamics of Monsoon programme data are collected at sites covering continuously moist, periodically moist and mainly dry regions of monsoon by using both conventional and modern techniques like instrumented meteorological tower, Doppler sonar, tether -sonde, mini-radiosonde radiometer, etc. The Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Programme Project is being launched as part of an international programme and includes deployment of data buoys, XBT lines, additional tide gauges, etc.
It will also help increase our capabilities for forecasting monsoon and cyclones. In order to study the effect of weather and climate in the tropics, efforts are being made to improve parameterisation of land-ocean-atmospheric processes in the atmospheric general circulation models AGCMs. Indian Climate Research Programme. The IRCP consists of: Under the programme, a pilot study on the Bay of Bengal and monsoon experiment to understand the air-sea interaction processes and monsoon variability have been completed.
Scientists are keen to gather data on the Bay of Bengal where most cloud formation takes place and moves northwards. They also plan to study how ocean conditions affect rainfall variations in a season intra-seasonal variation — a key factor for monsoon forecast models. A similar effort is on to sail buoys to study the warm waters of Kerala and Minocoy and the role of the Arabian Sea in monsoon fluctuations.
Scientists also plan to sail ships in the Bay of Bengal to study how its water circulation is affected by fresh water discharges from rain as well as major rivers that drain into it—the Ganga, Mahanadi, Irawadi and Brahmaputra.
The ships, to be located at intervals of 10, 15 and 20 degrees North latitude, will be equipped with instruments to measure changes in water circulation during different seasons and the monsoon. The land component of the ICRP has made a beginning with the construction of five highly instrumented towers to study the atmosphere from 10 to 30 metres height at Anand in Gujarat.
The ICRP studies fossil records to analyse climate variations in the past.
Climate Change and Weather Essay
Scientists are studying fossil pollen in Rajasthan lakes and Himalayan ice cores, pollen in peat in dried up marshy areas, and rings on old trees that vary according to climatic conditions. While pollen studies can give data 5, to 10, years old, the tree ring technique gives data up to years ago.
To go further back into history, scientists plan to drill and bring out material from shallow and deep ocean waters to analyse climate variability up to 1, to 20, years ago. The atmosphere component of ICRP consists of analysis of global data on atmosphere made available through satellites.
The first operational long-range forecast of seasonal southwest monsoon rainfall June-September of India was issued by IMD in In , a new technique was used to give the operational long-range forecast for the country as a whole. Each parameter or predictor was defined in terms of observations made over a specific location and period, which in some cases stretches till end-May.
The forecasting process has a qualitative as well as quantitative dimension, with the former involving an analysis of the configuration of favourable and unfavourable signals from the pre-monsoon behaviour of the 16 parameters. While the model theoretically had an estimated error range of only plus or minus 4 per cent of the forecast levels, the deviations from the actuals had, in practice, however, been much larger.
The reason for the quantitative forecasting errors being larger than original model error in recent times had mainly to do with the fact that statistical relationship of some of the predictors had been weakening with time.
The overall formulation of the operational parameter model has remained unaltered. Of the 16 parameters selected the IMD has held 10 to be favourable, which, in quantitative terms, translates into an all-India monsoon rainfall level amounting to 99 per cent of the long period average of 88 cm, within the estimated model error of plus or minus 4 per cent.
The output information predicts the data of wind, rainfall, temperature, humidity, soil temperature, cloud cover and derived information.
The centre has been developing a model for days forecast, and is now able to issue an operational forecast to the IMD a few days ahead. The centre, through its field units, has been providing medium- range forecasts by using global numerical model and agrometeorological advisories AAS to the farmers in various agro-climatic zones of the country.
These units are located at state agricultural universities and ICAR institutes. The state-of-the-art numerical models are being used at NCMRWF for generation of weather forecasts over the entire globe using mathematical model with initial condition generated after assimilation of global observations.
At present, the forecasts are produced for a km resolution grid that would soon be changed to a higher resolution of 75 km grid or less.
Recently, the model generation low-level wind fields have started to be used in the ocean state forecasting. Forecasts are being issued for other applications as well, viz. In addition, forecasts of vertical profiles of wind are provided for launch of space vehicles.
Essay on Earth’s Weather and Climate (4258 Words)
A new high-end computer system has been installed recently at the Centre, which will improve the accuracy, range and resolution of weather forecasts, especially of hazardous weather phenomena. The IMD was the main executing agency of this project in India.
The Indian Middle Atmosphere Programme IMAP is a nationwide cooperative effort of many scientific departments and organisations to investigate the physical and chemical phenomena and processes taking place in the atmosphere between km.
The mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere MST radar is the second largest such radar in the world the largest being at Jicamarca, Peru. It has been installed and it operates at Gadanki, a village near Tirupati, in Andhra Pradesh.
It is a national facility of immense use in atmospheric research. Gadanki was chosen for setting up of this radar facility because of its geographic location, near the Equator, as well as low level-noise prevalence. Besides, it is near Sriharikota, the launch pad of the ISRO, which can also benefit from the data obtained by this radar. MST corresponds to three height regions of atmosphere, km, km and km respectively. A radar which is used to study the dynamics of the above heights is called MST radar.
Rockets and balloons are conventionally used for probing the atmosphere. Different sensors sent up with these devices into the atmosphere, however, can give data only for a few minutes. The atmosphere can be analysed on a continuous basis every day by the MST radar.
A radar uses radio waves to detect and range the objects of interest. It sends radio waves and receives back the echo from the target.
From the time of received echo and shift in frequency of the echo, the range and velocity of the target can be determined. In normal radars, the target may be airplanes. For an MST radar the target is the irregularities in the radio refractive index of the atmosphere.
The strength of the echo is very weak, since reflexivity of the clear atmosphere is extremely small. This dictates the use of high transmitter power and antenna array with large physical aperture. It can provide details of the wind velocity of over five to km with a height resolution of metres. The antenna system of this radar is spread over a high area of 16, sq metres, employing Yagi antennae.
There are 32 high power transmitters in the system. The work of the MST radar is coordinated by the Department of Space on behalf of the Department of Electronics which provided 30 per cent funds.
Under the ISRO geosphere-biosphere programme, balloon-based cryo-sampler experiments are planned to be conducted at regular intervals. The scientific information thus obtained is expected to help monitor and regulate ozone depletion substances.
ISRO is one among very few organisations in the world to develop and successfully employ this advanced cryogenic technique. The indigenously developed cryogenic payload, for measuring ozone depletion and greenhouse warming substances in the atmosphere, was successfully launched from the National Scientific Payload Facility at Hyderabad in April